• Environment & Sustainability
  • Josephine V. Yam
  • Josephine V. Yam

Environment + Sustainability

All articles written by Josephine Victoria Yam.

Commodity or Currency: How Carbon Credits Should be Traded To Achieve Environmental Integrity in Linked Cap-and-Trade Schemes

Pursuant to the Paris Agreement, many countries intend to fulfill their carbon mitigation obligations by operating cap-and-trade schemes. While desirable, linking various cap-and-trade schemes to form a global carbon market is complex because it involves the collaboration of disparate schemes that governments have developed independently of each other. Because governments will design such schemes according to their own domestic priorities, heterogeneous carbon credits created from these schemes will have varying levels of environmental integrity. This thesis examines whether carbon credits should be traded like commodities or like currencies to achieve environmental integrity in linked cap-and-trade schemes. This thesis recommends that heterogeneous carbon credits should be traded like currencies by using carbon exchange rates that calibrate their varying carbon mitigation values to make them truly fungible. A carbon currency trading model will ensure the environmental integrity of linked cap-and-trade schemes to collectively mitigate climate change on an international scale.

The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme: Criteria Evaluations & Lessons Learned

This article won First Prize at the 2014 Canadian Institute of Resources Law (CIRL) Student Natural Resources Law Writing Competition. It evaluates the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) to determine whether it has effectively reduced greenhouse gas emissions from 2005 to 2012.

Climate Change Strategy: The Business Logic Behind Greenhouse Gas: An Article Review

Article Review On Hoffman, A. J. (2005). Climate Change Strategy: The Business Logic Behind Greenhouse Gas Reductions. California Management Review, 47(3), 21-46. Submitted for the Strategic Environmental Planning for Energy Organizations, SEDV 623 Spring 2013, University of Calgary.

Canada Exercises Legal Right to Withdraw from Kyoto Protocol

This article was originally published by the American Bar Association (ABA)'s Energy, Environment and Resources Section in its Climate Change, Sustainable Development and Ecosystems Committee Newsletter of April 2012.

Clean Development Mechanism: An Effective Market Mechanism for EU ETS Compliance

This article discusses why the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is integral to the European Union (EU)’s Emission Trading System (ETS), despite the criticisms hurled against it. The three major criticisms are that many CDM projects do not meet the “additionality” criteria, that the CDM provides a perverse …

The Negative Impacts of a Regulatory Command-and-Control Approach to Greenhouse Gas Reduction in the United States

This article discusses three detrimental impacts on private industry resulting from the U.S. government’s shift to a command‐and‐control approach from a market-based approach in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as the U.S. inescapably enters a carbon-constrained world.

A Case Study on Bombardier: Challenges and Opportunities To Sustainable Mobility

This article shows that Bombardier, a global transportation company, currently faces a plethora of challenges that beset the global aerospace and rail industries. Nevertheless, it has effectively transformed those challenges into strategic opportunities for sustainability through its comprehensive corporate social responsibility programs. To continue achieving high levels of sustainability, Bombardier will need to pursue this sustainability consultant’s recommendations in respect of its aerospace and rail transportation businesses.

Cap-and-Trade Scheme as Preferred Carbon Price Policy for Canada

This article discusses why a cap-and-trade scheme, rather than a carbon tax, is the preferred carbon price policy for Canada. This is because a cap-and-trade scheme provides significant benefits of environmental effectiveness, cost effectiveness, effective revenue generation, geographic flexibility and political acceptability to Canada’s overall clean energy strategy.

Singapore Manages Traffic Congestion through its Vehicle Quota System

This article discusses how Singapore has managed traffic congestion by restricting vehicle ownership through its unique Vehicle Quota System (VQS). The VQS is an innovative road transport policy that contributes to Singapore’s world- class transportation system (Phang, Wong, & Chia, 1996). Singapore was the first country in the world to introduce the VQS in May 1990, marking a new chapter in Singapore’s innovative approach to solving its land transport problems (Lam & Toan, 2006).

Thermal Recycling of Plastic Solid Waste: Advantages and Disadvantages

This article discusses the thermal recycling of plastic solid waste (PSW) as an environmentally sustainable method for the disposal of PSW, including the advantages and disadvantages that it presents.

The Varying Effects of Government Policy on the Wind Power Industry: A Comparison between the United States and China

This article discusses the major renewable energy policies of the United States and China and compare how effective they have been in developing the wind power industries in these jurisdictions.

A Comparative Analysis of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol and U.S. Corn Ethanol Using the Sustainability Framework

This article aims to provide a comparative analysis of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol and U.S. corn ethanol using the three fundamental dimensions of the sustainability development framework, namely,environmental, social and economic sustainability (Fontes, 2010).

Challenges Facing the Commercial Implementation of Algae as Biofuel Feedstock

This article discusses some of the challenges that beset the commercial implementation of algae as a biofuel feedstock.

Effective Government Policies Drive Wind Power Development in China

This article discusses how China’s renewable energy policies have been very effective in creating a very robust wind power industry. Because the Chinese government has taken a central role in stimulating the country’s development of wind power, China is now a world leader in the global wind power industry.

Wave Energy Industry: The Role of Government in Accelerating its Development

This article discusses the crucial role that government plays in accelerating the development of wave energy as part of its clean energy portfolio strategy towards a low-carbon economy.

Concentrated Solar Power: Opportunities and Obstacles in a Low-Carbon Economy

This article discusses the opportunities and obstacles that beset concentrated solar power in this low-carbon economy.




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